Bebop or bop is a style of jazz characterized by a fast tempo, instrumental virtuosity, and improvisation based on the combination of harmonic structure and sometimes references to the melody. It was developed in the early and mid-1940s. It first surfaced in musicians' argot some time during the first two years of American involvement in the Second World War. This style of jazz ultimately became synonymous with modern jazz, as either category reached a certain final maturity in the 1960s.

It developed as the younger generation of jazz musicians aimed to counter the popular swing style with a new, non-danceable music that demanded listening. With bebop no longer being a dance music, it enabled the musicians to play at faster tempos. Bebop musicians explored advanced harmonies, complex syncopation, altered chords, chord substitutions, asymmetrical phrasing, intricate melodies, and using rhythm sections in a way that expanded on their role. The classic bebop combo consisted of saxophone, trumpet, bass, drums, and piano. Some of the influential bebop artists included tenor sax players John Coltrane and Sonny Rollins; alto sax player Charlie Parker; trumpeters Miles Davis and Dizzy Gillespie; pianists Bill Evans and Thelonious Monk; and guitarists Wes Montgomery and Charlie Christian.

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