Great Migration (African American)
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970. Some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration (1910–1930), numbering about 1.6 million migrants who left mostly rural areas to migrate to northern industrial cities and, after a lull during the Great Depression, a Second Great Migration (1940 to 1970), in which 5 million or more people moved from the South, including many to California and other western states. Between 1910 and 1970, blacks moved from 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, to the other three cultural (and census-designated) regions of the United States. According to US census figures, Georgia suffered net losses in its African-American population for three consecutive decades from 1920–1950. More townspeople with urban skills moved during the second migration.
By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population. More than 80 percent of blacks lived in cities. A majority of 53 percent remained in the South, while 40 percent lived in the North, and 7 percent in the West. According to Nicholas Lemann, the Great Migration:
A reverse migration has gathered strength since 1965, dubbed the New Great Migration, the term for demographic changes in which many blacks have returned to the South, generally to states and cities where economic opportunities are the best. Since the 1960s, economic difficulties of cities in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, growth of jobs in the "New South" with lower costs of living, family and kinship ties, and improving racial relations have all acted to attract African Americans to the South in substantial numbers. As early as 1975 to 1980, seven southern states were net black migration gainers. African-American populations continue to drop throughout much of the Northeast, particularly with black emigration out of the state of New York, as well as out of Northern New Jersey, as they rise in the Southern United States.
American History USA Articles
- What Was the Maxwell Street Market?
Most immigrant neighborhoods in the late 1800s had an open air street market, exemplified by the Maxwell Street market in Chicago.
- Bound For the Promised Land: African American Religion and the Great Migration (The C. Eric Lincoln Series on... - Milton C. Sernett
- Living In, Living Out: African American Domestics and the Great Migration (Kodansha globe series) - Elizabeth Clark-Lewis