The Gilded Age and Progressive Era (1877-1929)
The industrialization of the United States proceeded at a frantic pace in the late 19th century. The subsequent chasm between rich and poor eventually spawned an army of Progressive reformers.
Under disputed circumstances, Crazy Horse was stabbed and killed at Fort Robinson, Nebraska on September 5, 1877.
- Charles W. Calhoun (ed.) - The Gilded Age: Perspectives on the Origins of Modern America
- David O. Stowell - Streets, Railroads, and the Great Strike of 1877 (Historical Studies of Urban America)
- Lawrence Goodwyn - The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America (Galaxy Books)
- Frederick Lewis Allen - Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920s
- 1877-1890 - A number of tribes in the Plains are defeated in their struggles against American encroachment. Wounded Knee is the final battle.
- 1877 - The Great Railroad Strike spreads across half of the country before it ultimately fails.
- c.1880 - Another great wave of immigration from Europe begins. Irish, Italians, Polish, Czechs, Slavs, and European Jews all diversify the nation's heritage.
- 1889 - For the first time, the U.S. produces more steel than Great Britain. America's status as an industrial power is secured.
- 1890 - The Union Stockyards in Chicago slaughter 9 million animals in a year. Chicago becomes known as the "hog-butcher of the world".
- 1893 - The Panic of 1893 triggers a deep economic depression, particularly affecting agricultural areas. Populist Party expands its strength.
- 1896 - Plessy v. Ferguson decision symbolizes the increasing hold of Jim Crow in the South.
- 1903 - The Wright Brothers successfully fly their first airplane in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
- 1908 - Henry Ford produces the first Model T and creates an assembly line that will revolutionize American industry.
- 1913 - The 16th Amendment establishes a federal income tax -- one of the biggest victories for the Progressive Movement.
- 1913 - The Federal Reserve is established, bringing central banking back to the United States.
- 1919 - The 18th Amendment establishes Prohibition -- another Progressive victory.
- 1920 - After a suffragist campaign of decades, the 19th Amendment grants the vote to women.
- 1929 - A steep crash in the stock market precipitates the Great Depression.